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Technical

KACBMA organised their first technical Seminar on the 22nd of January 2020 for the year 2019-20 at Bangalore.
Topics:

  1. Fire Protection and Emergency Preparedness

Speaker: Mr.Sachin Suvarna (Trainer from M/s. When It Strikes Crisis Management Pvt. Ltd.)

  1. Compliance: What it means to our Business (Prepared by Mr.Amit Agarwal and Presented by Mr.Manish Bothra)
  • GST: Change in GST laws (Speaker: Mr.Manohar Shetty)

 
According to Karnataka Fire Department and NBC law a building more than 500 sq.mtr should have

  1. Fire Extinguishers ( 1 extinguisher for every 1000 sq.ft. the type of extinguisher depends on the type of fuel present on the particular area)
  2. Internal Hydrant
  3. Sprinklers

Most of our units are bigger than 500 sq. Mtr or 5500 sq.ft.

  1. Fire Protection and Emergency Preparedness:

The speaker Mr.Sachin who has given more than 1500 such presentations to many large multinational companies and large corporate clientele in Karnataka agreed to our request and gave a wonderful presentation to our association.

  1. Fire Action Plan

RAISE THE ALARM
On witnessing a fire the best strategy is to warn everyone about the emergency in the building by raising the alarm immediately. It can be done by activating the M.C.P (Manual Call Point) or a pull station or by an emergency siren.

CALL THE FIRE BRIGADE
Call the fire brigade as soon as possible if you feel external emergency services are necessary to control the fire (Fire Control No. is 101; your Nearest Fire station No. is _________________) alternatively you can also contact your I.E.C (Internal Emergency Contact) No. (Your I.E.C No. is ___________) and give them your Name, Location and the kind of emergency.

ATTACK THE FIRE
Attack the fire immediately, if you are safe, using an available fire extinguisher. Do not attack a fire which is very huge, or if the fire is spreading too fast, or if there is lot of smoke, or you have no idea what is burning or your judgment says that you cannot attack the fire.

EVACUATE THE BUILDING

If you cannot attack the fire, immediately evacuate the building and go to the safe assembly point.

ORGANIZATION’S ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES IN THE EVENT OF FIRE:

Fire Safety Director:

1) Report to the Fire command station to supervise and declare an emergency.
2) Coordinate to man the Fire command station
3) Ensure that the fire department has been notified
4) Follow guidelines as provided in the Fire Safety Plan
5) Provide information on the condition of fire floor to the Fire department on their arrival and the operation of the fire command station.
6) Once the fire is under control, consult the fire brigade and give an „All-Clear‟
signal.

Building Evacuation Supervisor:

1) Gather the list of occupants in the building through attendance sheet or through access control report.
2) Rush to the safe assembly point with the occupants list
3) Guide the occupants in the safe assembly point and ensure that they stand in line according to their floors or department.
4) Guide the assembly area monitor or the fire warden to take a headcount of the occupants of his respective floor.
5) Tally the number of people available in the safe assembly point with the attendance sheet or the access control report.
6) Find out if someone is missing; if so make necessary arrangements to track the missing person.
7) Take special precautions and care about the differently abled or the pregnantladies; ensure that they have safely reached the safe assembly point.

Maintenance/ Facilities:
1) Make sure all the lifts are grounded by activating the grounding switch
2) Cut off the Electrical supply but maintain the UPS to keep the emergency lights ON.
3) Shut down all the HVAC (Heating, Ventilating and Air conditioning system)
4) Turn off all the Oil and Gas line valves to prevent any major fire.
5) Deactivate the access control system so that no doors towards the exit are locked or blocked.
6) Maintain the power in the fire hydrant pump room.

Security Team:
1) Cordon off the entire area, and see that there is no traffic movement in the area.
2) Receive and guide the fire brigade to the fire spot.
3) Provide Fire brigade BIF (Building Information Form)
4) Take the headcount of the Visitors and contract staff at the safe assembly point.
5) Assist the fire brigade by providing necessary equipments and tools till the fire fighting operation has been completed.

Fire wardens/ Deputy Fire wardens in the event of fire:
1) Wear the distinct cap or vest or hand band for identification.
2) Evacuate all the occupants of the building by making loud and clear announcements.
3) Check each and every corner of the floor such as closed cubicles, workstations, server room, conference halls, rest rooms etc. Paste room checked tags on the checked rooms.
4) Close all the doors and windows while evacuating the building.
5) Guide all the people to the safe assembly point through the staircase, do not allow anyone to use the lift.
6) Provide assistance to differently abled and pregnant ladies*.
7) After reaching the safe assembly point take the headcount of your respective floor or the department.
8) Provide the headcount report to the building evacuation supervisor.

Fire Party:
1) Report to the floor below the fire to assist in evacuation and provide information to the Fire Command Station.
2) After evacuation of the fire floor, endeavour to control the spread of fire by closing doors.
3) Leave one member on the floor below the fire to direct the Fire Department to the fire location and to inform them of the conditions.

FIRE PREVENTION
Fire has always been a serious hazard with devastating results. Fire destroys the life of people and property earned with persistent efforts and sacrifice, with just a moment of carelessness causing loss of life, injuries and heavy damage. The loss due to fire cannot be replaced. Fire accidents with devastating results could be avoided if we are careful. Fire Accidents don‟t just happen, they are caused. Whatever may be the reason for fire, the real cause behind every fire outbreak is carelessness, negligence or even ignorance on the part of the people. If we are careful, fire accidents could be avoided. Fire prevention means the efforts for eliminating the outbreak of fires by adopting all possible precautionary safety measures. Fire prevention is considered even more important than fire fighting itself. Before learning how to fight a fire, it is important to learn how to prevent fire accidents. To know the root cause of this problem, one should be knowledgeable about the common causes of fire accidents to avoid the detrimental effects caused by it.

It is all too easy for fire hazards to creep into the everyday working environment. Damaged electrical conductors, overloaded sockets and extension cords, faulty wirings, blown fuses, low quality electrical equipment, malfunction of electrical devices, loose electrical connections, lack of clearance between electrical heating devices and combustible materials, dangerous accumulation of waste, the use of compressed gases hazards like these have become an accepted part of our working environment and are often ignored for so long as they do not create problems. Only when a fire breaks outdoes the hazard become apparent, and then it is too late. The following examples seek to raise your awareness of the hazards in your working environment and suggest steps that should be taken to rectify the situation.

Damaged Light Fixtures
The picture shows a damaged light fixture, there can be accumulation of dust and moisture resulting in short circuit. All damaged electrical fixtures should be replaced with suitable new fixtures

Damaged wiring
All electrical wiring must be treated with care and checked regularly. Damage to electrical cabling over a period of time through any number of ways, i.e. being caught around the edge of a desk or chair, repeatedly and excessively being moved or through being periodically or constantly crushed , may cause significant damage to the internal cores of the cable. Damaged wiring could lead to number of problems. Strands of copper wire within the conductors may break due to fatigue, due to which less wire takes the load of the current, a local hotspot occurs, followed by the burning of the insulating rubber or plastic.

Damage may occur to the insulation of the wires allowing the conductors to touch and cause a short circuit, i.e. arching and overheating even without a correctly sized fuse blowing.

Fuse units
In the image it can be seen that the fuse unit is replaced with a screw, which is a serious fire hazard, the screw would allow high current to flow through it making the equipments vulnerable to fire risk.

Circuit breakers
Circuit breakers forms an important safety component in an electrical circuit by preventing any excessive current flowing in the system, but in the image it can be seen that a MCB unit has been taped to prevent it from tripping, which is not a good practice, due to which there can be heat generating in the MCB unit. Never tape any kinds of circuit breakers.

Flickering fluorescent lamps
Flickering fluorescent lamps give warning that heat is being generated in the starting circuit and has been known to start fires. It is therefore important to ensure that combustible materials are kept a suitable distance away from such lamps

Electrical junction boxes
All electrical connections are required to be enclosed in junction boxes. Use proper Cable bushings and wire termination methods. The wires should not be kept exposed to the Surroundings.

Faulty Wiring
Faulty electrical wiring implies that the wiring has some condition that makes it unsuitable or unsafe for use. Thousands of fire accidents occur due to faulty wiring. It is not easy to detect a faulty wiring in the electrical system. Some of the signs of faulty wiring include- Buzzing and charred switch outlets, flickering or dimming lights, breakers tripping more frequently than normal, odour of faintly or overheated plastic. In case you detect any faulty wiring, it should be rectified by a qualified electrician immediately.

Static Electricity
Static electricity is produced when two materials usually non-conductors, are placed in intimate contact with one another and then separated. Sometimes voltage produced due to static electricity can reach up to 1000 V resulting in sparking discharge, which can act as a source of ignition for any nearby flammable material. Static discharges can be controlled by proper grounding of equipments, by maintaining proper humidity level and by providing specialized anti-static shoes and clothing to workers.

Adequacy of sockets
In many work environments there is often a shortage of socket outlets. Therefore there is a tendency to use multiple extension sockets or double/triple adaptors but this can never be regarded as acceptable practice. The safety rule is to use one plug per socket. If it is necessary to use a two or three way adaptor plug as a temporary measure, only one plug fitted with a correct rated fuse should be used. A trailing extension is a safer temporary solution. In the long term additional outlets should be provided. If there are insufficient sockets, a qualified electrician should be employed to install more. Any worn out or hanging sockets should be rectified or replaced immediately.

Cables across the floor
Cables should not be left strewn across floors where they may become damaged or cause people to trip. Cables run across floors should be protected by a properly designed cable-protection carrier. The usual design is for the cable to fit neatly into a moulded rubber ramp. Wherever possible cables should be properly installed away from danger.

Electrical panel board
In the image it can be seen that there is no sufficient space around the electrical panel board. All electrical panel boards should have a minimum of 3 feet clearance from all the sides to allow any heat to dissipate, without which any combustible material near the panel board can get heated and lead to fire accidents.

Combustible materials and heating source
Any heat generating equipments such as space heaters, water immersion heaters, iron boxes etc. should kept at a safe distance from any combustible materials. In the image it can be seen that the person lying on the bed is unaware of the blanket lying directly over the space heater, this is a disaster waiting to happen.

Hot work permit
Outside contractors are responsible for many fires each year and therefore special precautions need to be taken while they are on the premises carrying out hot work, i.e. cutting, welding, grinding, soldering pipe work. The area of work should be clear of combustible materials and a suitable extinguisher nearby. Once the work is complete a thorough check of the work area should be made to ensure that no small fires or smouldering remain. This check should be repeated again an hour later. It is preferable to give hot work permit to the outside contractors when they do their job in the premises. A sample of hot work permit is given below.

FIRE SCIENCE

Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in a process of combustion, releasing heat and light and various reaction products. There are three generally recognized stages of a fire: The Incipient stage, The Smoldering stage and The Flame stage.

  1. a) The Incipient stage: It is a stage where preheating and slow prolysis is in progress. Gas and submicron particles are generated and transported away from the source.
  2. b) The Smoldering stage: It‟s a fully developed prolysis which begins with ignition and includes initial stage of combustion. Invisible aerosol and visible smoke particles are generated.
  3. c) The Flame stage: it‟s a stage of rapid reaction that covers the initial occurrence of a flame to a fully developed fire, which later develops into a blaze.

FIRE TRIANGLE:

A fire is a chemical reaction called combustion, where a combustible material or a fuel is oxidized by an oxidizing agent like oxygen in the presence of heat, giving out heat and light and various other reaction products. In simple terms a fire is the chemical reaction between three elements: Fuel, Oxygen and Heat.

Fuel: Anything that is combustible is a fuel; it can be in the form of a solid, liquid or a gas. Ex: Wood, Paper, Petrol, Diesel, LPG, CNG, hydrogen etc.

Oxygen: Another important element of fire is oxygen; it is because of the presence of oxygen that oxidation can take place. Air consists of approximately 21% of oxygen in the atmosphere.

Heat: Heat is the important element of fire. Any external source such as sparks, cigarette butts, static electricity, running machines etc. can generate heat leading to fires.

METHODS OF FIRE EXTINCTION:

Based on the fire triangle fire extinction can be done by removing one of the element from the triangle, so it can be done in 3 ways viz., Starvation, Blanketing or Smothering and Cooling.

Starvation Blanketing Cooling

  1. a) Starvation: It is the method of removing the fuel element from the fire triangle. In this method the surrounding materials are removed from the seat of fire and the fire is made to starve. Without the supply of fuel the fire will be extinguished.
  2. b) Blanketing/ Smothering: In this method the oxygen supply to the fire is cut off. Naturally the fire will be put off because of lack of oxygen. It is not necessary to prevent the total oxygen supply to the fuel area. This action can be achieved by using cotton blankets, plywood sheets or corrugated boxes over the

fuel.

  1. c) Cooling: It is the method of reducing the heat element from the fire. This method is generally done by using water, since water is a good absorber of heat. Water is the best fire-fighting media for solid fires like wood, leaves, cotton and charcoal. But water cannot be used on electrical and liquid fuels.

HEAT TRANSFER:

The fire spreads from one place to another place because of heat transfer. There are three different principles of heat transfer. They are: Convection, Conduction and Radiation

  1. a) Convection: The transfer of heat through the heated air particles or smoke travelling upwards is called

convection.

  1. b) Conduction: Transfer of heat through solid particles between two or more objects is called conduction. Speed of conduction varies from material to material. Iron and steel have good heat conduction, whereas wood has low heat conduction.
  2. c) Radiation: Transfer of heat in the form of short energy waves is called radiation. Any heated object at high temperature starts to radiate heat.

FIRE TETRAHEDRON:

The Fire Triangle Theory has been accepted for many years. Simply stated, there are three characteristics needed for a fire to burn: fuel, oxygen and heat. The fire triangle is used to predict situations that could result in fire. Today, this theory is modified to explain combustion or fire as a 4-sided figure, called a tetrahedron. A tetrahedron resembles a pyramid and offers a new element when considering combustion. The base of the pyramid represents the chemical chain reaction that occurs when the three other elements heat, fuel and oxygen are present in appropriate proportions. Vapors and gases are released during the burning process and are carried into the flame. The heat from the flame drives the chemical reaction. Heat, fuel and oxygen are the three standing sides of the figure and all four elements must be present in order to support combustion.

CLASSIFICATION OF FUELS:

For selecting suitable fire fighting media, burning fuels are divided into 4 different classes: A-class, B-class, C-class and D-class

1) A-class: Refers to all fires caused due to burning of solid materials and they generally produce ash at the end Ex: Wood, paper, cotton, textiles, plastic, leather, dry leaves etc.

2) B-class: Refers to all fires caused due flammable Liquids Ex: Petrol, Diesel, Kerosene, cooking oil, cutting oil, benzene, paint, solvents etc

3) C-class: Refers to fires caused due to flammable gases and fires due to energized equipments Ex: Gases: LPG, CNG, ethane, methane, propane, hydrogen etc. Electricity: Transformers, UPS batteries, generators, switch board, panel board, electrical appliances etc

4) D-class: Refers to fires caused due to flammable metals Ex: Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium, Lithium, Barium, Phosphorous, Xanthenium etc.

MEDIAS FOR EXTINGUISHING FIRE:

For extinguishing a fire, there are four important types of extinguishing medias available. They are: Water, Foam, Dry Chemical Powder and CO2 gas.

Media Principle A Class B Class C Class D Class

Water Cooling

Foam Blanketing

Dry

Chemical

Powder*

Blanketing

CO2 Blanketing

*There are different types of Dry chemical powders available to extinguish a fire:

 

Sodium Bicarbonate powder: It is white in colour and can be used on B and C class of fires.

Mono Ammonium Phosphate powder: It is light yellow in colour and can be used on A, B and C class of fire.

Ternary Eutectic Chloride (TEC) powder: It is brown in colour. It is recommended on D-class fires. Note: It is important to carefully decide on the selection and use of extinguisher on live electrical installations. Only the extinguishers that have passed electrical conductivity test should be used.

FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

WATER (STORED PRESSURE) TYPE FIRE EXTINGUISHER

Water (Stored pressure) type fire extinguisher has water as the extinguishing agent. When operated, the fire extinguisher produces a jet of approximately 6 meters and it works for around 120 seconds. This portable fire extinguisher is available in 9 liters capacity. Water type fire extinguisher can be used only for class “A” fires; it extinguishes fire by the cooling method. This extinguisher is not meant to be used on class  “B” and “C” class of fires, as the density of water is more than the density of many flammable liquids and gases which can lead into spread of fire. Also this extinguisher is not suitable on “D” class combustibl metal fires, as water is ineffective or may react violently against many metal fires. The fire extinguisher is also not recommended against electrical fires since water is a good conductor of electricity and can cause electrocution if used against electrical fires.

FOAM (STORED PRESSURE) TYPE FIRE EXTINGUISHER

Foam (Stored pressure) type fire extinguisher has foam as the extinguishing agent. When operated the fire extinguisher produces a jet of approximately 6 meters and it works for around 60 seconds. This portable

fire extinguisher is available in 9 liters capacity. Foam type fire extinguisher can be used on class „A‟ and class „B‟ fires. It extinguishes class “A” fire by cooling method and Class „B‟ fires by blanketing method. This fire extinguisher is not suitable to be used on class „C‟ fires as well as on class „D‟ fires. This fire extinguisher is also not recommended on any electrically generated fires.

BC POWDER (CARTRIDGE TYPE) FIRE EXTINGUISHER

The cartridge type powder fire extinguisher is a conventional model, unlike the modern stored pressure type; CO2 gas is stored inside a separate gas cartridge. To operate the extinguisher, a seal of the gas cartridge has to be first punctured by a striking knob or a squeeze lever, only then the extinguisher gets pressurized to release the extinguishing media. This fire extinguisher can be used on class „B‟, class „C‟ and electrically generated fires. It is not recommended to be used on class „A‟ and class „D‟ fires.

ABC POWDER (STORED PRESSURE) TYPE FIRE EXTINGUISHER

Stored pressure ABC fire extinguisher is a multipurpose type fire extinguisher. Unlike the conventional cartridge type fire extinguisher, the nitrogen gas is directly pressurized in the cylinder above the powder instead of in a separate gas cartridge and hence it is called stored pressure fire extinguisher. This fire extinguisher can be used on class „A‟, class „B‟, class, „C‟ and electrical fire. It is not recommended to be used on class „D‟ fires since the powder is ineffective against it.

CO2 (CARBON DIOXIDE) TYPE FIRE EXTINGUISHER

The carbon dioxide fire extinguisher has carbon dioxide gas as the fire extinguishing agent. Carbon dioxide is heavier than air and can displace oxygen; hence it can provide the blanketing effect when used on a fire. It is also electrically non conductive hence it is an effective fire fighting agent against electrical fires. Carbon dioxide is a non contaminating media hence a suitable fire extinguishing media in sensitive areas like server rooms, hub rooms computer installations etc. This fire extinguisher can be used on class „B‟ and class „C‟ fires as it provides very good blanketing effect, it can also be used on electrical fires since CO2 gas is electrically non-conductive. This particular fire extinguisher is not recommended on class „A‟ fires. with fire red colour. The external body of the extinguisher has an instruction label with letter „B‟ and „C‟ indicating the suitability of extinguisher on class „B‟, class „C‟ and electrical fires.

Compliance:

What it means to our Business (Prepared by Mr.Amit Agarwal and Presented by Mr.Manish Bothra)

The speaker explained how compliance is becoming a major part of our expenditure. He broke up the compliance chart into three parts

1.Statutory Compliance
i. Gratuity & Leave with Wages
ii. Maternity Leave with Wages
iii. Contractor License
iv. Minimum Wages – ?
v. Labor License / Number of People
vi. Shift Approval
vii. Crèche Facility
viii. ESI / PF
ix. Canteen Facility
x. Medical Check Up
Vision Testing
Pulmonary Function Test
Audiometry Test
General Medical Fitness Test
xi. Safety Equipment
xii. Lux Level Monitoring
xiii. Drinking Water Potability Test – Monthly
xiv. First Aid Training – First Aid Boxes
xv. Fire Hydrant
xvi. Sprinklers
xvii. Smoke Detectors
xviii. Fire Extinguishers
xix. Fire NOC
xx. Fire Fighting Training
xxi. Mock Drills Every Quarter
xxii. Emergency Evacuation Plan
xxiii. Explosive Storage License
xxiv. Earth Pit Testing
xxv. Transformer Installation Certificate
xxvi. Power Backup Charges (Customer Req.)
xxvii. Class One Electrical Contractor
xxviii. DG Installation Certificate
xxix. Annual Transformer Testing
xxx. Annual Returns to Inspector of Factories
xxxi. Approved Building Plan
xxxii. Building Stability Certificate
xxxiii. Air Quality Monitoring
xxxiv. Boiler Stack Emission Monitoring
xxxv. DG Stack Emission Monitoring
xxxvi. Indoor & Ambient
xxxvii. Boiler Dust Emission
xxxviii. Bag Filter
xxxix. Effluent Treatment Plant
xl. Ink Treatment Plant
xli. Glue Wash Water Treatment
xlii. Disposal of Hazardous Waste – Waste Oil, Acids, Boiler Ash Etc.
xliii. Filling of Returns
xliv. Form 4 for Hazardous Waste Returns
xlv. Form 5 for Environmental Statement
xlvi. Form 10 Manifest
xlvii. Water Cess Returns
xlviii. Noise Level Monitoring
xlix. Indoor Noise Level
l. Ambient Noise Level
li. Achievements in EHS
lii. Property Tax
liii. IT Related – Software / ERP
liv. GST Related
lv. Company Law
lvi. Weights and Measures
lvii. Local Gram Panchayat
lviii. Professional Tax
lix. Testing & Certifications
Pressure Vessels
All Lifting Equipment

2.Social Compliance
i. Work Timings
ii. Overtime Limits
iii. Minimum Wages
iv. Maternity Benefits
v. Health & Safety
vi. Personal Protective Eqpt
vii. Work Place Hygiene
viii. Sexual Harassment
ix. Canteen Facility
x. Transport For Workers
xi. Sound Limits
xii. Public Liability Insurance

3.Customer demanded Compliance.
i. House Keeping
ii. Pest Control
iii. Just In Time Delivery
iv. Traceability > FIFO System For RM & FG
v. Green Channel Supply
vi. Certifications
vii. Palletized Delivery
viii. Spare Capacity
ix. Exact Quantity Delivery
x. Training Program

He explained the advantages of being compliant in increasing ones turnover and also decreasing costs.

i. Improvements in Our Process
ii. Loss Reduction Due to New Tools
iii. Improvement in Productivity
iv. JIT Implementation
v. Low WIP/FG Stock
vi. Improved Moral of Employees
vii. Improved Safety
viii. Improved Aesthetics in Plant
ix. Searching Time Reduction
x. No Major Accidents

He explained that nothing comes free and presented how a minimum cost of Rs 0.47 to be added as compliance cost in the costing done for our cartons.

Report Prepared by
Manish Bothra

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